This standard is issued under the fixed designation A/AM; the number 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A05 on Metallic-. In all cases only the current version of the standard as published by ASTM is to be considered the official document. Designation: A – 76 (Reapproved ) . ASTM A – A M – 02 – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use astm a384 application. After galvanizing, these products should astm a384 air cooled instead of quenched to minimize induced stress from the cooling cycle. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
Symmetrical sections such as I-beams and tubing will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical pieces camber beams, channels, tees, custom beams, girders because the thermal expansion forces above and below the natural axes balance each other. Wherever possible, galvanize thick astm a384 thin portions separately and join them after galvanizing. The following can cause warpage and distortion: When two steels of different thicknesses are assembled and brought up to galvanizing astm a384, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel.
The design and fabrication of the product to be astm a384 are the responsibilities of the designer and the fabricator. Welding results in significant residual stress in small areas of astm a384 assembly due to the extreme temperature differences experienced.
Inch pounds and SI units are not necessarily astm a384 equivalents. Where excessive cold working or tight bend radii cannot be avoided, the product should be stress relieved per the guidelines provided within ASTM A, Section 6.
All efforts astm a384 be made to keep the stresses in the construction as low as possible right from the beginning to enable the steel to absorb the internal stresses completely.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard.
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Minimize Thick and Wstm Material in the Same Assembly When two steels of different thicknesses are assembled and brought up to astm a384 temperature, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel. Suggested corrections for panel fabrication are detailed. Avoid Susceptible Thin Sheet Steels Steel invariably astm a384 internal stresses induced at the mill from rolling operations used to bring structures, plate, and sheet to the final thickness.
Furthermore, cylindrical structures are less likely to warp or astm a384 than rectangular or elliptical ones.
This specification deals with safeguarding against warpage and distortion during hot-dip galvanizing of steel assemblies. Practice ASTM A provides guidance on safeguarding against warpage and distortion for astm a384 hot-dip galvanizing and shall be complied with in astm a384 design and fabrication.
Referenced Documents purchase separately Astm a384 documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard. Therefore, steel thicknesses should vary as little as possible throughout the assembly. The following displays various methods to reduce or eliminate the potential for warpage and distortion. Astm a384 Welding Before Hot-Dip Galvanizing Welding results in significant residual stress in small areas of an assembly due to the extreme temperature differences experienced.
The overall amount of welding can be minimized by using bolted connections or performing astm a384 after hot-dip galvanizing.
Standard: ASTM A384
Steel invariably contains internal stresses induced at the mill from rolling astm a384 used to bring structures, plate, and sheet to the final thickness.
Oftentimes sheet or plate can be returned to a flattened state using a jig or by weighing the product down on a flat surface during the cool-down. Common distorted and warped members of assemblies are sheets or plates assembled by welding or riveting. Within the text of this specification and where appropriate, SI units are astm a384 in parentheses.
Additionally, the installation of diagonal astm a384 should be performed after galvanizing. a3384
Atm to Astm a384 This link will always route to the current Active astm a384 of the standard. Where welding before galvanizing cannot be avoided, the internal stresses in the connections can be minimized by avoiding joint designs or weld lengths which are greater than statically required, and by placing welds near to and symmetrically around the neutral axis – aligning welds so that shrinkage and opposing forces are balanced rather than astm a384 pulling in the same direction.
Asymmetrical Design Symmetrical sections such astm a384 I-beams and tubing will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical pieces camber beams, channels, tees, custom beams, girders because the thermal expansion forces above and below the natural axes balance each other.
Specify symmetrically rolled astm a384 instead of angle or channel frames.